Mobile devices have undergone a substantial evolution from a first device weighing 1.1 kg to ultrathin sensor consumer devices running operating systems, having GPS, cameras and a wide set of different functions. Mobile telephony has also developed from early 0G services to analog cellular network (1G), digital telephony (2G), broadband data services (3G) and the most current 4G — ultra broadband internet access networks. Mobile software application development, including creating business, entertaining and educational apps, has become one of the biggest branches in the whole software development industry. In this article we bring light to the major stages of mobile devices development history.
The 1940s – The Development of Cellular Phones Concept
The 1940s are considered the years when the technology applied in modern cell phones was first developed. Cell technology was initially used in crude mobile phones set in police cars, emergency vehicles and taxis and was also applied by truckers. In 1947 the basic concept of cellular phones was created when researchers found out they could use hexagonal cells for mobile phones in vehicles. The idea was truly advanced though the technology to implement it didn’t exist at that time. AT&T company offered Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to allocate a significant quantity of radio-spectrum frequencies to make mobile services possible. In 1947 it was possible to accomplish only 23 conversations at the same time in a separate service area.
1973 — Motorolla Produces the First Mobile Device
On April, 3, 1973 Martin Cooper,— a Motorola engineer, researcher and executive, made a first boastful phone call from portative consumer device to his rival in the race of developing such equipment – Dr.В Joel S. Engel working for Bell Labs. The first handheld mobile device was really bulky weighing 1.1 kg, 23 cm long, 13 cm deep and 4.45 cm wide. Subscriber could have a conversation for only 30 minutes with 10 hours necessary for device to recharge. This invention cost almost 1 million dollars and made Motorola the first company to incorporate the technology developed earlier for car-based radio communication into the handheld device. Later Martin Cooper told the BBC that in today’s currency such phone would cost approximately $10,000.
1984 — Mobile Devices are Approved for Public Use
The first commercial mobile phones (1G) were introduced by Motorola in 1983. That year the U.S. Federal Communications Commission approved DynaTAC portable phone created by Motorola for public use. This device had the size of a small briefcase. Despite its weight being reduced to 794 g in comparison with the much heavier initial prototype models, the DynaTAC phone was rather inconvenient and limited in use, and the analog telephony was rather noisy and vulnerable to eavesdropping. Consumers liked it anyways, and DynaTAC quickly became an expensive status thing.. The main and only function of this phone was voice traffic.
The 1990s — The Age of Digital Telephony & SMS Started
The 1990s are considered to be the beginning of the mobile phone industry revolution which hasn’t ended even today. In 1990 the first GSM (2G) network using digital technology for communication in the 900В MHz frequency band was launched in Finland and the first cell phone working with GSM networks was made. Phones became much smaller, more energy-efficient and affordable (the cheapest models starting at about $200), and as a result were getting more and more popular, passing 100 million subscribers by 1998. In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G — high-speed “third generation” GSM network — took place in Japan. A brand new type of communication — short text messages (SMS) – was introduced and rapidly became popular among young people. The first SMS written by person was sent in Finland in 1992. 2G and 3G allowed consumer to access the media content via their mobile phones.
1993 — Invention of the First Smartphone
IBM’s Simon, considered to be the first smartphone in the world, was introduced at the Wireless World Conference in 1993. It cost $899 and had a wide range of features including pager, fax machine, PDA, remotely updated calendar, e-mail, address book, clock, calculator, early LCD touchscreen with QWERTY keyboard and predictive typing. IBM produced only 2,000 such phones weighing less than 0.5 kilograms and with a stylus for writing on the screen.
1998 — First Downloadable Content & Mobile Payments
In 1998 Finland’s Radiolinja (now Elisa) started to sell first downloadable content for mobile phones — it was a ring tone. Mobile payments were tested in the same year in Finland and Sweden and were used for purchasing drinks and for parking fees collection. The first banking/credit commercial payment system was launched in 1999 in the Philippines. 1999 is the year of internet services introduction on the mobile phones by NTT DoCoMo (Japan).
2002 — First Mobile Devices with Cameras Became Available
The first mobile device with camera was invented in 1997 by French entrepreneur Philippe Kahn. He took a first photo with a mobile phone; it was a photoof his newborn daughter Sophie. Commercial launch of such devices followed in 2002 when Nokia 7650 and the Sanyo SPC-5300 with built-in cameras became available for consumers.
2007 – iPhone was Released
June 29, 2007 is the date of the first iPhone official release which caused a real stir among consumers. People queued overnight to be among the first to get their hands on the Apple’s smartphone. The iPhone had 9В cm (3.5 in) touch screen covered with scratch-resistant glass, and was running on the Apple iOS mobile operating system. The iPhone was described as a combination of three separate devices — a mobile phone, an iPod and an internet communicator. Apple’s smartphone was one of the first devices to make incredible use of touch screen controls on the mobile phones. iPhone bragged of a touchpad keyboard, photo library, and a visual voicemail box.
2012 — Current Situation
By 2012 smartphones and featurephones of greatest variety became the most common electronic devices in all parts of the world. In 2012 1.7bn mobiles were sold by the three largest vendors – Samsung, Nokia and Apple. Annual sales of mobile phones are expected to grow up to 2.1bn by 2016. Currently, more advanced telephony technologies of 3.5G and ultra high-speed 4G are becoming widely used by consumers.
Communication means remain one of the major needs ofpeople. Mobile phones with their uncountable functions and applications have penetrated into many aspects of everyday life of almost every person and became an integral part of today’s business activities. Experts predict that this trend is only going to grow stronger in the future, with mobile devices entering almost all spheres of life, culture and communication technologies.